NMT Research References - Gait & Movement

Bernatzky, G., Bernatzky, P., Hesse, H.P., Staffen, W., & Ladurner, G. 2004. Stimulating music increases motor coordination in patients afflicted by Morbus Parkinson. Neuroscience Letters, 361, 4-8.


Buetefish, C., Hummelsheim, H., Denzler, P., & Mauritz, K.H. 1995. Repetitive training of isolated movements improves the outcome of motor rehabilitation of the centrally paretic hand. Journal of Neurological Sciences, 130, 59-68.


Clark, C. & Chadwick, D. 1980. Clinically Adapted Instruments for the Multiply Handicapped. St. Louis, MO: Magnamusic-Baton.


Cross, P., McLellan, M., Vomberg, E., Monga, M., & Monga, T.N. 1984. Observations on the use of music in rehabilitation of stroke patients. Physiotherapy Canada, 36, 197-201.


Davis, W.B., Gfeller, K., & Thaut, M.H. 1992 (1998, 2nd ed.). An Introduction to Music Therapy: Theory and Practice. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers. (Japanese Language Edition, 1997. Sapporo, Japan: Ichibaku Shuppansya Publishing.) (Spanish Language Edition, 2000) (Korean Language Edition, 2002)


Del Olmo, M.F., & Cudeiro, J. 2003. A simple procedure using auditory stimuli to improve movement in Parkinson’s disease: A pilot study. Neurology & Clinical Neurophysiology, 2003 (2), 1-7.


Del Olmo, M.F., & Cudeiro, J. 2003. The timing in Parkinson’s disease: Effects of a rehabilitation program based on rhythmic sound cues. Proceedings Society for Neuroscience, 734.2.


Dozza, M., Chiari, L., & Horak, F.B. 2005. Audio-biofeedback improves balance in patients with bilateral vestibular loss. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86 (7), 1401-3.


Elliott, B. 1982. Guide to the Selection of Musical Instruments with Respect to Physical Ability and Disability. Saint Louis, MO: MMB Music, Inc.


Fields, B. 1954. Music as an adjunct in the treatment of brain damaged patients. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 33, 273-283.


Freedland, R.L., Festa, C., Sealy, M., McBean, A., Elghazaly, P., Capan, A., Brozycki, L., Nelson, A.J., & Rothman, J. 2002. The effects of pulsed auditory stimulation on various gait measurements in persons with Parkinson’s disease. Neurorehabilitation, 17 (1), 81-87.


Freeman, J.S., Cody, F.W., & Schady, W. 1993. The influence of external timing cues upon the rhythm of voluntary movements in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 56, 1078-1084.


Gaston, E.T. (Ed.). 1968. Music in Therapy. New York, NY: MacMillan Co.


Gfeller, K.E. 1999. Music therapy in the treatment of sensory disorders. In W.B. Davis, K.E. Gfeller, & M.H. Thaut (Eds.), An Introduction to Music Therapy. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.


Hesse, S. & Werner, C., & Bardeleben, A. 2004. Electromechanical gait training with functional electrical stimulation: Case studies in spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord, 42, 346-52.


Hesse, S. & Werner, C. 2003. Post-stroke motor dysfunction and spasticity: Novel pharmacological and physical treatment strategies. CNS Drugs, 17, 1070-1093.


Howe, T.E., Lovgreen, B., Cody, F.W., Ashton, V.J., & Oldham, J.A. 2003. Auditory cues can modify the gait of persons with early-stage Parkinson’s disease: A method for enhancing Parkinsonian walking performance? Clinical Rehabilitation, 17 (4), 363-367.


Hurt-Thaut, C.P. & Johnson, S.B. 2003. Neurologic music therapy with children: Scientific foundations and clinical applications. In S.L. Robb (Ed.), Music Therapy in Pediatric Healthcare: Research and Evidence-Based Practice (pp. 81-100). Silver Spring, MD: American Music Therapy Association, Inc.


Hurt, C.P., Rice, R.R., McIntosh, G.C., & Thaut, M.H. 1998. Rhythmic auditory stimulation in gait training for patients with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Music Therapy, 35, 228-241.


Kenyon, G.P. & Thaut, M.H. 2000. A measure of kinematic limb instability modulation by rhythmic auditory stimulation. Journal of Biomechanics, 33, 1313-1323.


Kimber, T.E., Tsai, C.S., Semmler, J., Brophy, B.P., & Thompson, P.D. 1999. Voluntary movement after pallidotomy in severe Parkinson's disease. Brain, 122, 895-906.


Lamontagne, A. & Fung J. 2004. Faster is better: Implications for speed-intensive gait training after stroke. Stroke, 35 (11), 2543-8.


Liberzon, T. & Brown, S.H. 1998. Effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on timing variability of sequential arm movements in Parkinson's disease. Proceedings Society for Neuroscience, 653.18.


Lim, I., Van Wegen, E., de Goede, C., Deutekom, M., Nieuwboer, A., Willems, A., & Jones, D. 2005. Effects of external rhythmical cueing on gait in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Clinical Rehabilitation, 19 (7), 695-713.


Luft, A.R., McCombe-Waller, S., Whitall, J., Forrester, L.W., Macko, R., Sorkin, J.D., Schulz, J.B., Goldberg, A.P., & Hanley, D.F. 2004. Repetitive bilateral arm training and motor cortex activation in chronic stroke: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 292 (15), 1853-1861.


Mak, M. (2006). Feed-forward audio-visual cues could enhance sit-to-stand in Parkinsonian patients. Proceedings of the 4th World Congress for Neurorehabilitation, F1B-7.


Mandel, A.R., Nymark, J.R., Balmer, S.J., Grinnell, D.M., & O'Riain, M.D. 1990. Electromyographic feedback versus rhythmic positional biofeedback in computerized gait retraining with stroke patients. Archives of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation, 71, 649-654.


Mauritz, K.H. 2002. Gait training in hemiplegia. European Journal of Neurology, 9 suppl 1:23-29; discussion 53-61.


McCombe, W.S. & Whitall, J. 2005. Hand dominance and side of stroke affect rehabilitation in chronic stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation, 19 (5), 544-551.


McCombe Waller, S. & Whitall, J. (2006). Combining bilateral and distal arm training to promote arm and hand recovery in patients with chronic hemiparesis: A case report. Proceedings of the 4th World Congress for Neurorehabilitation., P2-080


McIntosh, G.C., Brown, S.H., Rice, R.R., & Thaut, M.H. 1997. Rhythmic auditory-motor facilitation of gait patterns in patients with Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 62, 122-126.


McIntosh, G.C., Rice, R.R., Hurt, C.P., & Thaut, M.H. 1998. Long-term training effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation on gait in patients with Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders, 13 (2), 212. [Abstract]


McIntosh, G.C., Rice, R.R., Thaut, & M.H. 1994. Stride frequency modulation in Parkinsonian gait using rhythmic auditory stimulation. Annals of Neurology, 36, 316. [Abstract]


McIntosh, G.C. & Thaut, M.H. 1997. Rhythmic sensorimotor facilitation of gait in patients with Parkinson's disease. Proceedings of the 4th Australian Multidisciplinary Conference on Parkinson's Disease, 63-65. [Abstract]


McIntosh, G.C., Thaut, M.H., & Rice, R.R. 1996. Rhythmic auditory stimulation as entrainment and therapy technique in gait of stroke and Parkinson's disease patients. In R. Pratt & R. Spintge (Eds.), Music Medicine, Vol. II (pp. 145-152). St. Louis, MO: MMB Music.


McIntosh, G.C., Thaut, M.H., Rice, R.R., Miller, R.A., Rathbun, J., & Brault, J.M. 1995. Rhythmic facilitation in gait training of Parkinson's disease. Annals of Neurology, 38, 331. [Abstract]


McIntosh, G.C., Thaut, M.H., Rice, R.R., & Prassas, S.G. 1993. Auditory rhythmic cuing in gait rehabilitation with stroke patients. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 20, 168. [Abstract]


McIntosh, G.C., Thaut, M.H., Rice, R.R., & Prassas, S.G. 1995. Rhythmic facilitation of gait kinematics in stroke patients. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation, 9, 131. [Abstract]


Miller, R.A., Thaut, M.H., McIntosh, G.C., Rice, R.R. 1996. Components of EMG symmetry and variability in Parkinsonian and healthy elderly gait. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 101, 1-7.


Molinari, M., Leggio, M.G., Filippini, V., Cioia, M.C., Cerasa, A., & Thaut, M.H. 2005. Sensorimotor transduction of time information is preserved in subjects with cerebellar damage. Brain Research Bulletin, 67, 448-458.


Morris, G.S., Suteerawattananon, M., Etnyre, B.R., Jankovic, J., & Protas, E.J. 2004. Effects of visual and auditory cues on gait in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 219, 63-69.


Munneke, M., Keus, S.H.J., Bredero-Cohen, A.B., Hendriks, H.J., & Bloem, B.R. (2006). Evidence-based clinical practice guideline for physical therapy in Parkinson’s disease. Proceedings of the 4th World Congress for Neurorehabilitation, P1-058.


Pacchetti, C., Aglieri, R., Mancini, F., Martignoni, E., & Nappi, G. 1998. Active music therapy and Parkinson's disease: Methods. Functional Neurology, 13 (1), 57-67.


Pacchetti, C., Mancini, F., Aglieri, R.,  Fundaro, C., Martignoni, E., & Nappi, G. 2000. Active music therapy in Parkinson’s disease: An integrative method for motor and emotional rehabilitation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62 (3), 386-393.


Platz, T., Brown, R.G., & Marsden, C.D. 1998. Training improves the speed of aimed movements in Parkinson's disease. Brain, 121, 505-514.


Prassas, S.G. & Thaut, M.H. 1992. Effects of music and rhythm on gait characteristics of normal individuals. Journal of Biomechanics, 25, 684. [Abstract]


Prassas, S.G., Thaut, M.H., McIntosh, G.C., & Rice, R.R. 1997. Effect of auditory rhythmic cuing on gait kinematic parameters in stroke patients. Gait and Posture, 6, 218-223.


Rice, R.R., Thaut, M.H., McIntosh, G.C., & Miller, R.A. 1995. The effect of a home based gait training program for Parkinson's disease patients using rhythmic auditory stimulation. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of the World Federation for Physical Therapy, 768. [Abstract]


Richards, C.L., Malouin, F., Bedard, P.J., & Cioni, M. 1992. Changes induced by L-Dopa and sensory cues on the gait of parkinsonian patients. In M. Woollacott and F. Horak (Eds.), Posture and Control Mechanisms (Vol. 2) (pp. 126-129). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon Books.


Robb, S.L. (Ed.) 2003. Music Therapy in Pediatric Healthcare: Research and Evidence-Based Practice. Silver Spring, MD: American Music Therapy Association, Inc.


Robertson, S.D., Chua, R., Maraj, B.K., Kao, J.C., & Weeks, D.J. 2002a. Bimanual coordination dynamics in adults with downs syndrome. Motor Control, 6, 388-407.


Robertson, S.D., Van Gemmert, A.W., & Maraj, B.K. 2002b. Auditory information is beneficial for adults with downs syndrome in a continuous bimanual task. Acta Psychologica, 110, 213-229.


Rochester, L., Hetherington, V., Jones, D., Nieuwboer, A., Willems, A.M., Kwakkel, G., & Van Wegen, E. 2005. The effect of external rhythmic cues (auditory and visual) on walking during a functional task in homes of people with Parkinson’s disease. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 86 (5), 999-1006.


Sandrini, G., Tassorelli, C., Balloni, L., Buscone, S., & Pacchetti, C. (2006). Efficacy of sensorial cues on gait rehabilitation in Parkinson’s disease. Proceedings of the 4th World Congress for Neurorehabilitation, P1-053.


Schauer, M. & Mauritz, K.H. 2003. Musical motor feedback (MMF) in walking hemiparetic stroke patients: Randomized trials of gait improvement. Clinical Rehabilitation, 17, 713-722.


Schauer, M.L., Steingrueber, W., & Mauritz, K.H. 1996. Die Wirkung von Musik auf die Symmetrie des Gehens von Schlaganfallpatienten auf dem Laufband. Biomedizinische Technik, 41, 291-296.


Sears, W. 1968. Processes in music therapy. In E.T. Gaston (Ed.), Music in Therapy (pp. 30-44). New York, NY: MacMillan Co.


Schneider S, Schoenle PW, Altenmueller E, MUnte TF. 2007. Using musical instruments to improve motor skill recovery following a stroke. Journal of Neurology, Online First – Jan 27


Szmedra, L. & Bacharach, D.W. 1998. Effect of music on perceived exertion, plasma lactate, norepinephrine and cardiovascular hemodynamics during treadmill running. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 19, 32-37.


Teasell, R.W., Bhogal, S.K., Foley, N.C., & Speechley, M.R. 2003. Gait retraining post stroke. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 10 (2), 34-65.


Thaut, M.H. 1985. The use of auditory rhythm and rhythmic speech to aid temporal muscular control in children with gross motor dysfunction. Journal of Music Therapy, 22, 108-128.


Thaut, M.H. 1988. Rhythmic intervention techniques in music therapy with gross motor dysfunction. Arts in Psychotherapy, 15, 127-137.


Thaut, M.H. 1992. Music in motor recovery with neurological disorders. Hearing before the Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate, 102nd Congress, August 1991 (pp. 100-101). Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Thaut, M.H. 1996. Music therapy in neurologic rehabilitation. In H. Smeijsters & F. Mecklenbeck (Eds.), Book of Abstracts, The 8th World Congress of Music Therapy (p. 101). Bremen, Germany: Trialog Verlag.


Thaut, M.H. 1997. Clinical effects and neurological mechanisms of musical stimuli in neurological rehabilitation of elderly patients. Proceedings of the Institute on Music Therapy and Aging. Silver Spring, MD: National Association for Music Therapy, 13-14. [Abstract]


Thaut, M.H. 1997. Rhythmic auditory stimulation in rehabilitation of movement disorders: A review of current research. In D.J. Schneck & J.K. Schneck (Eds.), Music in Human Adaptation (pp. 223-230). Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.


Thaut, M.H., Hoemberg, V., Kenyon, G., & Hurt, C.P. 1998. Rhythmic entrainment of hemiparetic arm movements in stroke patients. Proceedings Society for Neuroscience, 653.7. [Abstract]


Thaut, M.H., Hurt, C.P., Dragan, D., & McIntosh, G.C. 1998. Rhythmic entrainment of gait patterns in children with cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 40 (78), 15. [Abstract]


Thaut, M.H., Hurt, C.P., & McIntosh, G.C. 1997. Rhythmic entrainment of gait patterns in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation, 11, 131. [Abstract]


Thaut, M.H., Kenyon, G.P., Hurt, C.P., & Hoemberg, V. 1998. Rhythmic entrainment of spatiotemporal parameters in paretic arm reaching movements of stroke patients. Annals of Neurology (submitted). [Abstract]


Thaut, M.H., Kenyon, G.P., Hurt, C.P., McIntosh, G.C., & Hoemberg, V. 2002. Kinematic optimization of spatiotemporal patterns in paretic arm training with stroke patients. Neuropsychologia, 40, 1073-1081.


Thaut, M.H., Kenyon, G.P., Schauer, M.L., & McIntosh, G.C. 1999. The connection between rhythmicity and brain function. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 18 (2), 101-108.


Thaut, M.H., Lange, H., Miltner, R., Hurt, C.P., & Hoemberg, V. 1996. Rhythmic entrainment of gait patterns in Huntington's disease patients. Proceedings Society for Neuroscience, 727.6. [Abstract]


Thaut, M.H., Lange, H., Miltner, R., Hurt, C.P., & Hoemberg, V. 1998. Gait pattern analysis during velocity modulation with and without rhythmic sensory cues in patients with Huntington’s disease. Movements Disorders, 13 (suppl 2), 157. [Abstract]


Thaut, M.H. & McIntosh, G.C. 1992. Effect of auditory rhythm on temporal stride parameters and EMG patterns in normal and hemiparetic gait. Neurology, 42, 208. [Abstract]


Thaut, M.H. & McIntosh, G.C. 1999. Music therapy and mobility training with the elderly: a review of current research. Care Management Journals, 1, 71-74.


Thaut, M.H. & McIntosh, G.C. 2006. Rhythmic auditory training in sensorimotor rehabilitation of people with Parkinson’s Disease. Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair, 20, 81.


Thaut, M.H., McIntosh, G.C., & Hoemberg, V. 1999. Mechanisms of rhythmic motor facilitation in hemiparetic stroke rehabilitation. Journal of Neural Recovery & Repair, 13, 30-31. [Abstract]


Thaut, M.H., McIntosh, G.C., Prassas, S.G., & Rice, R.R. 1992. Effects of auditory rhythmic pacing on normal gait and gait in stroke, cerebellar disorder and transverse myelitis. In M. Woollacott & F. Horak (Eds.), Posture and Gait: Control Mechanisms, Vol. 2 (pp. 437-440). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon Books.


Thaut, M.H., McIntosh, G.C., Prassas, S.G., & Rice, R.R. 1993. The effect of auditory rhythmic cuing on stride and EMG patterns in hemiparetic gait of stroke patients. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation, 7, 9-16.


Thaut, M.H., McIntosh, G.C., & Rice, R.R. 1997. Rhythmic facilitation of gait training in hemiparetic stroke rehabilitation. Journal of Neurological Sciences, 151, 207-212.


Thaut, M.H., McIntosh, G.C., Rice, R.R., & Prassas, S.G. 1993. The effect of auditory rhythmic cuing on stride and EMG patterns in hemiparetic gait of stroke patients. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation, 7, 9-16.


Thaut, M.H., McIntosh, G.C., Rice, R.R., & Miller, R.A. 1995. Rhythmic auditory-motor training in gait rehabilitation with stroke patients. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Disease, 5, 100-101. [Abstract]


Thaut, M.H., McIntosh, G.C., Rice, R.R, Miller, R.A., Rathbun, J., & Brault, J.M. 1996. Rhythmic auditory stimulation in gait training with Parkinson's disease patients. Movement Disorders, 11, 193-200.


Thaut, M.H., McIntosh, G.C., Rice, R.R., & Prassas, S.G. 1993. Effect of auditory rhythmic cuing on temporal stride parameters and EMG patterns in hemiparetic gait of stroke patients. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation, 7, 9-16.


Thaut, M.H., McIntosh, G.C., Rice, R.R., Miller, R.A., Rathbun, J., & Brault, J.M. 1996. Rhythmic auditory stimulation in gait training of Parkinson's disease patients. Movement Disorders, 11, 193-200.


Thaut, M.H., McIntosh, K.H., McIntosh, G.C., & Hoemberg, V. 2001. Auditory rhythmicity enhances movement and speech motor control in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Functional Neurology, 16, 163-172.


Thaut, M.H., Miller, R.A., Mezza, C.M., Rice, R.R., & McIntosh, G.C. 1995. Synchronization effects of auditory rhythm on gait healthy elderly and Parkinsonian patients on and off medication. Proceedings Society for Neuroscience, 819.1. [Abstract]


Thaut, M.H., Miltner, R., & Hoemberg, V. 1996. Rhythmisch-Akustische Stimulation in der Gangrehabilitation: Zusammenfassung bisheriger Befunde und Hinweise zur praktischen Durchfuehrung. Neurologie & Rehabilitation, 2, 81-86. [In German]


Thaut, M.H., Miltner, R., Lange, H.L., Hurt, C.P., & Hoemberg, V. 1997. Geschwindigkeitsmodulation und rhythmisch akustische Synchronisation des Ganges bei Patienten mit Morbus Huntington. Neurologie & Rehabilitation, 4 (suppl), 6. [Abstract]


Thaut, M.H., Miltner, R., Lange, H.L., Hurt, C.P., & Hoemberg, V. 1998. Gait velocity modulation with and without rhythmic facilitation in Huntington's disease patients. Movement Disorders, 14, 808-819.


Thaut, M.H., Miltner, R., Lange, H.L., Hurt, C.P., & Hoemberg, V. 1999. Velocity modulation and rhythmic synchronization of gait in Huntington’s disease. Movement Disorders, 14 (5), 808-819.


Thaut, M.H., Nickel, A., & Hoemberg, V. 2003. Neurologische Musiktherapie: Ueberblick zum wissenschaftlichen Hintergrund und zur klinischen Methodik. Musiktherapeutische Umschau, In Press. [In German]


Thaut, M.H., Nickel, A., Kenyon, G.P., Meissner, N., & McIntosh, G.C. 2005. Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) for gait training in hemiparetic stroke rehabilitation: An international multicenter study. Proceedings Society for Neuroscience, 756.6


Thaut, M.H., Rice, R.R., McIntosh, G.C., & Prassas, S.G. 1993. The effect of auditory rhythmic cuing on stride and EMG patterns in hemiparetic gait of stroke patients. Physical Therapy, 73, 107. [Abstract]


Thaut, M.H., Schicks, W., McIntosh, G.C., & Hoemberg, V. 2002. The role of motor imagery and temporal cuing in hemiparetic arm rehabilitation. Journal of Neural Recovery & Repair, In Press. [Abstract]


Thaut, M.H., Schleiffers, S., & Davis, W.B. 1992. Changes in EMG patterns under the influence of auditory rhythm. In R. Spintge & R. Droh (Eds.), Music Medicine (pp. 80-101). St. Louis, MO: MMB Music.


Thaut, M.H., Ueno, K., Hurt, C.P., & Hoemberg, V. 1999. Bilateral limb entrainment and rhythmic synchronization in paretic arm movements of stroke patients. Proceedings Society for Neuroscience, 365.6. [Abstract]


Thompson, A.B., Arnold, J.C., & Murphy, S.E. 1990. Music therapy assessment of the cerebrovascular accident patient. Music Therapy Perspectives, 20, 1471-1485.


Van Wegen, W., Nieuwboer, A., Rochester, L., Jones, D., & Kwakkel, G. (2006). The effect of cueing therapy as measured by activity monitoring in the RESCUE trial. Proceedings of the 4th World Congress for Neurorehabilitation, P1-061.


 Willems, A. 2006a. The effects of guideline-based cueing therapy on gait-related mobility in Parkinson’s disease patients: The RESCUE-project. Proceedings of the 4th World Congress for Neurorehabilitation, F1B-2.


Willems, A. 2006b. Physiotherapy guidelines on the use of cueing in Parkinson’s disease. Proceedings of the 4th World Congress for Neurorehabilitation, F1B-4.


Whitall, J., McCombe, Waller, S., Silver, K.H., & Macko, R.F. 2000. Repetitive bilateral arm training with rhythmic auditory cueing improves motor function in chronic hemiparetic stroke. Stroke, 31 (10), 2390-2395.